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3.4 Hand Plane

This standard covers both bench planes and smaller block planes with metal bodies and adjustable blade systems which include a frog and chip breaker. Some versions of the block planes do not include an adjustable sole plate. This standard is not to be applied to scraping planes.

Considerations

  • Pre-Operation Checklist is a prerequisite for ANY operation.
  • Blade (plane iron) is ground with primary bevel at correct angle (usually 27 - 30 degrees)
  • For conventional planes (smooth, jack, fore, jointer) the blade is installed with the bevel down and the cap iron (chip breaker) properly set and tightened in place (1/16" or 1.5 mm from the cutting edge)
  • For block planes and rabbet planes, the blade (plane iron) is installed with the bevel up
  • The blade is honed with a secondary bevel with a hard white Arkansas stone or equivalent
  • Sole of plane has been checked and is confirmed to be true and straight
  • The adjusting wheel, Y lever or any other mechanism which adjusts depth of cut functions smoothly
  • The lateral adjustment lever or equivalent adjustment functions properly
  • A proper bench and vise is provided to firmly hold the material during hand planing
  • The bench top area is free from clutter
  • The floor area is free from tripping hazards and clutter
  • Process is completed in a timely manner

Pre-Operation Checklist

Level 1

Performance Standard -
  • Verifies that tool is sharp and properly adjusted by making a test cut on sample provided

Level 2

Performance Standard -
  • Confirms that plane iron (blade) is sharp
  • Confirms that cap iron has a properly prepared edge
  • Properly installs cap iron on plane iron (blade) with proper sequence to avoid damaging the cutting edge
  • Properly installs double plane iron in body of plane without damaging the cutting edge
  • Adjusts lever cap or tension knob to firmly hold double plane iron assembly during operation
  • Meets Level 1 performance standard

3.4.1 - Edge Planing

Level 1

Given a piece of hardwood measuring min. 19 mm x 150 mm x 760 mm (3/4" x 6" x 30 "), of medium density and even texture (soft maple, yellow poplar or equivalent) which has been surfaced on 2 sides and one edge and a properly prepared and adjusted plane, produce a single, continuous shaving.
Performance Standard-
  • Shaving is equal to the width of the board edge continuously from end to end
  • Shaving is 1/10 mm [0.004"] maximum thickness or less
  • Shaving is unbroken and continuous from end to end of board

Level 2

Given a piece of hardwood measuring 19 mm x 150 mm x 760 mm (3/4" x 6" x 30 "), of medium density and even texture (soft maple, yellow poplar or equivalent) which has been surfaced on 2 sides with one edge left rough, properly prepare and adjust plane, use it to produce a single, continuous shaving.
Performance Standard -
  • Edge is square to face of board when measured continuously along its length
  • Meets Level 1 performance standard

3.4.2 - Face Planing

Level 1

Given a piece of hardwood measuring 19 mm x 150 mm x 760 mm (3/4" x 6" x 30 "), of medium density and even texture (soft maple, yellow poplar or equivalent) which has been surfaced on 2 faces and both edges and a properly prepared and adjusted plane, produce an acceptable surface on one board face.
Performance Standard-
  • Shavings are 1/10 mm [0.004"] maximum thickness or less
  • Board surface is free from torn grain
  • Board surface is free from gouges

Level 2

Given a piece of hardwood measuring 19 mm x 150 mm x 760 mm (3/4" x 6" x 30 "), of medium density and even texture (soft maple, yellow poplar or equivalent) which has been surfaced on 2 sides and both edges, properly prepare and adjust plane, use it to produce an acceptable surface on one board face.
Performance Standard -
  • Board surface is flat across its width when measured with the edge of the blade of a try square or similar device.
  • Board surface is straight when measured lengthwise and diagonally across the planed face with a steel straight edge or similar device.
  • Meets Level 1 performance standard.